Initial Origin of cashew:
The cashew (Scientific name: Anacardium occidentale) is native to northeast Brazil, the Portuguese took it to Goa, India, between 1560 and 1565. From there it spread throughout Africa and Southeast Asia. The cashew has been in Viet Nam since 18th century.
Areas of cultivation in Vietnam:
Acreages of cashew have been decreased year by year in generally, 381.80 hectares in 2006, 439.90 ha in 2007, 406.70 ha in 2008, 391.20 ha in 2009, 372.60 ha in 2010, 364 ha in 2011, 335.20 ha in 2012. By 2013 there was approximately 310.90 hectares left. Cashew trees have been cultivated in different regions and provinces, the largest areas are Southeast and Highlands of Vietnam such as Binh Phuoc (135 ha), Dong Nai (44.80 ha), Daklak (25.20 ha), Gialai (17.8 ha), Daknong (17.3 ha), Lam Dong (16.2 ha), Ba Ria Vung Tau (11.8 ha), Binh Thuan (17.7 ha), etc.
Yield of cashew nuts during the years:
2006: 227.10 tons, 2007: 312.40 tons, 2008: 308.50 tons, 2009: 291.90 tons, 2010: 289.90 tons, 2011: 309.30 tons, 2012: 312.50 tons, 2013: 277.70 tons.
Yield of each hectare of cashew was not the same in different years due to changes of weather conditions, insect growth. The most important period bringing in high or low production of cashew is flowering stage. Raw cashew nut demand for processing in Vietnam:
Vietnam cashew industry needs now about more or less 1,000,000 tons of raw seeds. Self supply is about 350,000 – 450,000 tons including Cambodian raw seeds which are imported into Vietnam by border trade, the remaining quantity comes from different origins. African countries including Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria, Guinea Bissau, Guinea Conakry, Benin, Tanzania, Gambia, Senegal,… are the largest supply sources besides Indonesia in Southeast Asia.
Quality of raw cashew nuts:
Cashew Quality of each origin is different due to seed variety, cultivation soil, weather condition, cultivating practices, pestilent insects during the crop. Good quality of raw seeds surely produce good kernels accordingly, however, drying methods and storage after harvest of fresh seeds are seriously effective on quality of raw seeds, sun drying is the best one to use in agriculture.
In any conditions, raw cashew nuts should meet moisture at below 10% at the discharge time, 8% is preferable. Others including Outturn, Nut count, Defective should be at agreed levels to make sure that the seeds are suitable for processing line of each cashew factory.